Specialised Banks

Specialised banks are financial institutions that focus on specific sectors or functions within the economy.


Specialised banks are financial institutions that focus on specific sectors or functions within the economy. Unlike traditional banks that offer a wide range of financial services, specialised banks concentrate on catering to the particular needs of a niche market. These banks are designed to provide specialised services and expertise in areas such as:

Types of Specialised Banks

  1. Development Banks: They focus on providing financial assistance for the long-term development of industries and sectors. They often support infrastructure projects, agriculture, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), and other initiatives aimed at economic growth.
  2. Export-Import Banks: They are the type of banks that facilitate international trade by providing financial support to exporters and importers. They offer services like export credit insurance, loans, and guarantees to promote foreign trade.
  3. Agricultural Banks: These banks specialise in offering financial services to the agricultural sector. They provide loans, insurance, and other banking facilities tailored to the needs of farmers and related businesses.
  4. Housing Finance Institutions: They focus on providing housing loans and financing for real estate development. Their goal is to facilitate affordable housing and property-related financing.
  5. Industrial Banks: They are banks that provide funds and financial services to industrial enterprises. They support manufacturing, production, and industrial growth through various financial products.
  6. Microfinance Institutions: They are established with the primary aim of providing financial services, including small loans, to low-income individuals or businesses that typically lack access to traditional banking services.

Functions of these Banks

  1. Expertise: Specialised banks possess in-depth knowledge and experience in their specific sectors, which allow them to offer more tailored financial solutions. 
  2. Risk Management: They often have a better understanding of the risks associated with their focused area. This allows for more efficient risk management practices. 
  3. Developmental Focus: These banks play a crucial role in fostering growth and development within their targeted sectors.
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