Basic Features of a Democratic State

A democratic state is characterized by certain fundamental features that set it apart from other forms of governance.


In this post, we shall look into the features of a democratic state. At the end of this lesson, students should be able to enumerate the features of a democratic state.

Features of a Democratic State

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A democratic state is characterized by certain fundamental features that set it apart from other forms of governance. These features are essential in ensuring that the government operates in a manner that upholds the rights and interests of its citizens. The basic features of a democratic state are as follows:

  1. Periodic Elections: A democratic state conducts regular and periodic elections to elect representatives into various legislative bodies. These elections give citizens the opportunity to participate in the democratic process and have a say in their government.
  2. Equal Opportunity for Participation: In a democratic state, all citizens have equal opportunities to participate in the decision-making processes of the government. Every citizen’s voice is valued and considered, regardless of their social status or background.
  3. Guarantee of Fundamental Human Rights: Democratic states uphold and protect the fundamental human rights of their citizens. These rights include freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, freedom of religion, and other individual liberties.
  4. Protection of Minority Rights: A democratic state ensures that the rights of minority groups are safeguarded and protected, preventing the tyranny of the majority.
  5. Independent Electoral Commission: To ensure free and fair elections, democratic states create independent electoral commissions responsible for maintaining an updated electoral register, conducting elections through secret ballot, and overseeing the electoral process. For instance, in Nigeria, this is done by the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC).
  6. Formation of Political Parties: In a democratic state, political parties are allowed to form and operate freely, representing different ideologies and interests within society.
  7. Existence of Opposition Parties: A democratic state encourages the existence of opposition parties, which act as watchdogs of the government, providing checks and balances to prevent abuse of power.
  8. Independent Judiciary: A democratic state maintains an independent judiciary that ensures the fair interpretation and application of the law, protecting citizens’ rights and resolving disputes impartially.
  9. Rule of Law: The principle of the rule of law is fundamental in a democratic state, ensuring that all individuals, including those in power, are subject to the law and that no one is above it.
  10. Universal Adult Suffrage: The franchise is open to all citizens based on universal adult suffrage, meaning all adult citizens have the right to vote and participate in the electoral process.
  11. Special Procedures to Amend the Constitution: Democratic states have established special procedures for amending the constitution, ensuring that any changes to the fundamental law are done with careful consideration and broad consensus.
  12. Supremacy of the Constitution: The constitution is the supreme law of the land in a democratic state, providing the framework for the functioning of the government and the protection of citizens’ rights.
  13. Freedom of Expression and Free Press: In a democratic state, citizens enjoy freedom of expression which allows them to voice their opinions and ideas openly. A free press operates independently, providing objective and diverse information to the public.
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